Why are these women here dancing on their own? It is said the twirling of the handkerchief is a way to lure the woman. Without their partners present, their dance would illustrate the loss of their loved one, drawing public attention to the human rights violations occurring in Chile. In the 20th century, the dance was especially common in rural areas or in the working class neighborhoods of Santiago. Everything changed in Chile after the 1973 coup d’état when General Augosto Pinochet and the Chilean army violently ousted the democratically-elected government of President Salvador Allende. Besides establishing strict societal rules, like curfews, as part of his authoritarian regime, Pinochet incorporated la cueca into his military parades, taking it from the working class and establishing it as a symbol of the dictatorship’s oppressive hand. As with many aspects of Chilean culture, la cueca did not escape Pinochet’s grip. In Argentina, there are many ways of dancing Cueca. A courtship dance known since the period of Spanish colonization, it is danced to the rapid, rhythmic music of guitars. They then face each other and hold their handkerchief in the air, and begin to dance. Claro Valdés, Samuel, Carmen Peña Fuenzalida y María Isabel Quevedo Cifuentes (1994). , The cueca was named the national dance of Chile due to its substantial presence throughout the history of the country and announced as such through a public decree in the Official Journal (Diario Oficial) on November 6, 1979. Cueca (Spanish pronunciation: ) is a family of musical styles and associated dances from Chile, Argentina and Bolivia.In Chile, the cueca holds the status of national dance, where it was officially declared as such by the Pinochet dictatorship on September 18, 1979. Cueca, folk dance of northern Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. La cueca presentada por Violeta Parra, also known as El folklore de Chile Volumen 3, is an album by Violeta Parra released on the Odeón label in early 1959. "Cueca." Join thousands of satisfied visitors who discovered Central, Chilena and Valparaiso Chile.This domain may be … A post shared by Dj_Zicox (@francisco.andres.valencia) on Mar 14, 2017 at 4:32pm PDT. 34, issue 1, 2013, pp. While dancing, handkerchiefs are used by both male and female dancers by twirling over the head. Disertacion de La Cueca by catasalazar2015.  In Argentina the dance was first introduced in Cuyo, which is in the central west of the country close to the border with Chile; there is documented presence of the cueca in this region in approximately 1840. Everyone begins the dance with the handkerchief in their right hand and twirls it in circles near their shoulder and then proceeds to waive it by the left side of their waist during certain beats. While cueca's origins are not clearly defined, it is considered to have mostly European Spanish and arguably indigenous influences. In March 1879 the writer and musician Abelardo Gamarra renamed the “chilena” as the “marinera”. In the 19th century, la cueca became a popular activity in local taverns throughout Chile. In Bolivia, Cueca styles vary by region: Cueca Paceña, Cueca Cochabambina, Cueca Chuquisaqueña, Cueca Tarijeña, Cueca Potosina y Cueca Chaqueña. 1850:105-106. Chilean cueca is highly structured in terms of dance, lyrics and music a characteristic of early European dances of colonial times. There are three distinct variants in addition to the traditional cueca: Currently, the cueca is mainly danced in the countryside, and performed throughout Chile each year during the national holidays in September 18 eve. During the celebratory Fiestas Patrias holidays, for example, Chileans of all ages enjoy getting out their hankies and stomping the day away. I. Additionally, they were the first place to incorporate a violin into our song, thus giving it more flare and excitement. In Bolivia, it is usually called "Cuequita Boliviana".  Cueca specialist Emilio Ignacio Santana argues that the dictatorship's appropriation and promotion of cueca harmed the genre. Under Pinochet, la cueca was also declared Chile’s official national dance in 1979. During the second half of the nineteenth century the cueca was spread to diverse Latin American countries and the dance was known simply as the "chilena" (Chilean). El baile consta de una conquista del hombre hacia la mujer, aunque no necesariamente tiene un motivo amoroso. It is known for being the most upbeat, fun, and playful in comparison to the others which are more tranquil. Although we’re in 2018 and most places are working towards equality between women and men, this dance represents the misogyny that still exists today by letting the man choose if he likes his partner with the woman having no say about how she feels. The basic structure of the cueca is that it is a compound meter in 68 or 34 and is divided into three sections. Funny enough, the way la cueca is danced resembles the mating ritual of a hen and a rooster. The dancing couple pursue and retreat, pass and circle about each other, twirling handkerchiefs as they dance. cuecachilena.cl has been informing visitors about topics such as Cuecas, Cueca and Zona. Cueca styles of La Paz, Potosí and Sucre are the elegant and static versions, whereas in Cochabamba and Tarija the style is much livelier and free. , In Chile the cueca was developed and spread in the bars and taverns, which in the nineteenth century were popular centers of entertainment and parties. The male displays a quite enthusiastic and at times even aggressive attitude while attempting to court the female, who is elusive, defensive and demure.  Being distinctly Chilean the cueca was selected by the military dictatorship of Pinochet as a music to be promoted. It’s been reclaimed by Chileans as a celebration of working class and “huaso,” or countryside culture. The striking visual of the solo dancer externalizes the absence of these lost lives. «La zamacueca (cueca, zamba, chilena, marinera)». The most widespread version of its origins relates it with the zamacueca which arose in Peru as a variation of Spanish Fandango dancing with criollo. Since Chile’s return to democracy nearly 30 years ago, la cueca has lost much of the stigma that it had during the dictatorship. LA CUECA La cueca es una danza folclórica, que fue oficialmente declarado el baile nacional de Chile en 1979. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. Chilean cueca is not Zamacueca but, a mixture of different dances of the time, where Zamacueca is just one of the influential aspects of the genre. The dance demonstrates how Bolivian gender roles remain quite male-dominated. Cueca dancing resembles a rooster-chicken relationship.  The Marinera, Zamba and the Cueca styles are distinct from each other and from their root dance, the zamacueca. A post shared by A. Orellana (@totitumadre) on Sep 11, 2016 at 9:57am PDT, In response to the horrendous human rights violations under Pinochet, la cueca then took the form of political protest. Unlike in the northeast and central west of Argentina in Buenos Aires the dance was known as the "cueca" instead of the "chilena" and there is documentation of the cueca being present in Buenos Aires as early as the 1850s. Ministerio Secretaría General de Gobierno (06 de noviembre de 1979), Learn how and when to remove this template message, «Historia de Trujillo - Breve historia de la marinera», «Danzas folklóricas argentinas: Coreografías: La cueca - la chilena o norteña», https://search.proquest.com/docview/303198415, "Traditional Bolivian Music Types: Western Bolivia. The dance often finishes with the man kneeling on one knee, with the woman placing her foot triumphantly on his raised knee.  Chilean sailors and adventurers spread the cueca to the coast of Mexico in the cities of Guerrero and Oaxaca, where the dance was also known as the "chilena". La Cueca es un baile fiesta, los contertulios llevan en gran parte la responsabilidad de la alegría, mientras la cantora, la guitarra y el arpa rasgan, comienza el acompañamiento de golpes acompasados, el tamborileo sobre la caja de la guitarra o el arpa. The man approaches the woman and offers his arm, then the woman accompanies him and they walk around the room. Women wear flowered dresses. The Cueca, since its origin, has been a source of happiness for the dancers because the music is generally lively and the dances require partners to be excited about dancing with each other. Effects of the dictatorship were widespread, and the Chilean pueblo wasn’t able to gather or celebrate like the were before. What they have in common is their rhythm, but they differ much in velocity, costumes and style. Cf. The men in the dance wear the huaso's hat, shirts, flannel poncho, riding pants and boots, short jacket, riding boots, and spurs. Según el Atlas del Folklore de Chile", «Decreto 23: Declara a la cueca danza nacional de Chile», Hispanic-influenced music in the Philippines, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cueca&oldid=991414218, Articles to be expanded from September 2020, Articles needing translation from Spanish Wikipedia, Articles needing additional references from May 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Learn more about Scribd Membership. During the entirety of the dance, the man is attempting to “win over” his partner by showing his dancing talents. The women always follow the male lead because when they are facing each other, it is up to him to decide if he'd like to flirt with his partner by putting his hanker chief near her neck and shoulders, if he'd like to hold the hanker chief behind her neck holding it with both hands, or if he doesn't want to flirt with her, he will simply continue waiving his handkerchief near his shoulder and waist.  Cueca and Mexican music coexisted with similar levels of popularity in the Chilean countryside in the 1970s. Chile’s famed folklorist Victor Jara was tortured and executed in Chile Stadium and thousands of left-wing politicians, activists, intellectuals, and artists were killed, kidnapped, or exiled. Why is there this sadness in their eyes? One of which is the Cueca Tarijena. Tarija, Bolivia, has a few traditional songs which are accompanied by dances. The interesting thing about Cueca is that it is danced with a handkerchief, and this is how one shows affection for others. In Bolivia, there are many variations throughout the different regions.  The dictatorship's endorsement of the genre meant according to Santana that the rich landlord huaso became the icon of the cueca and not the rural labourer.. Mothers, wives, and family members of kidnapped and disappeared Chileans would dance la cueca alone. The cueca from the central region: This genre is mostly seen in Chile. The arábigo-andaluza influence is considered the most important contribution of cueca in all aspects including, dancing, singing and tempo and is considered the primary root of the genre. This is the determining factor to see if they will dance together in the next part of the song, or if they would need to find other partners. A post shared by Valentina JaAr (@valjaar) on Sep 11, 2016 at 7:51am PDT. Cueca tournaments are popular around that time of year.  In Peru the dance transformed into one of the most popular dances during the 1860s and 1870s and was also known as the “chilena”. This dance is designed for women to show off their beauty and men to demonstrate their talent. Each Argentine province has its own style and way of dancing Cueca. Andean Music and Dances", "Situación actual de la música folklórica chilena. La cueca chilena 1. Throughout most of the dance, the women simply sway their hips side to side, whereas the men turn in circles and do more complicated movements. The guitar, accordion, guitarron, and percussion are the prevailing instruments. These solo dancers became recognized worldwide when Sting released his song “They Dance Alone.”. La cueca is all about romantic conquest. Historians believe that la cueca originates from a regional dance, the zamacueca, which has roots in Spanish, indigenous, and African traditions, and was originally danced in Peru. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 23:07. Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 26 Aug. 2011. academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/cueca/28125#. The use of the handkerchief is a key element of the cueca dance, as partners will raise it above their heads or behind their backs as they stomp their feet and circle one other.Throughout the dance, it’s important that cueca dancers maintain strong eye contact throughout the different steps and movements. 71-110, http://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESeprQ4y9fwOLCmr0%2Bep7JSsq64SLaWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGuskyurK5IuePfgeyx43zx1%2BqE&T=P&P=AN&S=R&D=aph&K=89236509. Due to the dance's popularity in the region, the Peruvian evolution of the zamacueca was nicknamed "la chilena", "the Chilean", due to similarities between the dances. This typical countryside dance has been around in Chile for generations. The genre do have some aspects of Afro oriented music such as Zamacueca however, cueca is a mixture of different genres and the best of way to understand the evolution of Chilean cueca is to observe the different Spanish, European and popular dances of the time.  During Fred Warpole's stay in Chile between 1844 and 1848 he described some of the characteristics of the dance: guitar or harp accompaniment, drumming of hands or a tambourine to keep the rhythm, high pitched singing and a unique strumming pattern, where the guitarist strums all of the strings, returning each time with a slap on the guitar body.. They never touch, but still maintain contact through facial expressions and movements. In Chile, the cueca holds the status of national dance, where it was officially declared as such by the Pinochet dictatorship on September 18, 1979.. Cueca is mostly danced in the northern and western Argentine provinces of Mendoza, Chaco, Salta, Jujuy, Catamarca, La Rioja etc. Although it may have the same name as the dances in the other departments, such as Cueca Pacena which represents La Paz, each department's dance varies significantly.