The common names 'ladybird', 'ladybug' and 'ladybeetle' refer to members of the Coccinellidae that have brightly coloured elytra and are conspicuous. In Asia and North America, H. axyridis contributes to the control of aphids on sweetcorn (Zea mays subsp. Susceptibility of immature monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera:Nymphalidae:Danainae), to predation by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae). H. axyridis is a polyphagous predator and as such has been used widely as a biological control agent of pest aphids and scale insects. 34 (4), 483-494. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/een DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2008.01075.x. 50 (4), 2003-2007. http://www.progress.plantprotection.pl/pliki/2010/PPP_50_4_70_Labanowski_G_R.pdf, Liu Jian, Ma FengMing, Zhao KuiJun, 2009. Parrella G, Varricchio M L, Giorgini M, 2015. The first-instar larvae are approximately 2 mm long and reach 7.5-10.5 mm by the fourth (final) instar. Heriditas, 139:121-127, Grez A, Zaviezo T, González G, Rothmann S, 2010. The legs are also short and retract under the body. New record of the invasive ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis in Afrotropical Region: Tanzania, Zanzibar. A preliminary study on the artificial diet of an aphidophagous coccinellid, Harmonia axyridis (Palas), and its use to control strawberry aphids under plastic covering. This ability to exploit a diverse range of habitats suggests that H. axyridis has the potential to spread and invade a wide range of ecosystems. http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/invasives/, Wise IL, Turnock WJ, Roughley RE, 2001. On intra-guild predation and cannibalism in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 48(2), 307-308. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/13652338 doi: 10.1111/epp.12473, Berkvens N, Moens J, Berkvens D, Samih MA, Tirry L, Clercq Pde, 2010. H. axyridis has a long history of introductions as a biological control agent of coccids and aphids around the world. Relative toxicity of six insecticides to Cycloneda sanguinea and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0084448, Smith MW, Arnold DC, Eikenbary RD, Rice NR, Shiferaw A, Cheary BS, Carroll BL, 1996. Taxonomy of Coccinellids, corrected version. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.June. The alkaloids contained within these beetles adversely affect the taste and bouquet of the vintage (Pickering et al., 2005). The Far-Eastern ladybird against the apple aphid. 5 (5), 481-488. Coleopterists Bulletin. Invasion of the Florida citrus ecosystem by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) and asymmetric competition with a native species, Cycloneda sanguinea. Wine Spectator, 15 May, 16, Elliott N, Kieckhefer R, Kauffman W, 1996. The elytra and pronotum colour and pattern of H. axyridis adults are highly polymorphic. (2007) evaluated the threshold density for wine contamination to be about 0.9 and 1.3-1.5 beetle per kg of grapes (Vitis vinifera), respectively, but the latter authors recommend a more conservative limit of 0.2 to 0.4 beetles per kg of grapes above which interventions in the field or in the winery should be considered. It is now established in at least 15 countries, from Denmark in the north to Italy in the south, and from Great Britain in the west to Czech Republic and Hungary in the east. Recently concerns have been raised that both H. axyridis and C. septempunctata cause such problems to the wine industry in North America (Botezatu et al., 2013).Both H. axyridis and C. septempunctata contribute alkyl methoxypyrazines, and particularly isopropyl methoxypyrazine, to wine at concentrations that are considered to have a negative impact on wine quality (Botezatu et al., 2013). Cannibalism and interspecific predation in two predatory ladybirds in relation to prey abundance in the field. Photo about Empty pupa of harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, still attached to a grape leaf. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria. Harmonia axyridis in Europe: spread and distribution of a non-native coccinellid. The first state record for the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), from Montana. (2008a) have documented the introduction history and spread of H. axyridis in Europe. They are pale yellow when first laid, but progressively turn a darker yellow. Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp. 46 (4), 592-596. http://www.ilib.cn/P-kczs.html, Majerus MEN, 2004. Springer, on line. Journal of Entomological Science, 32(3):332-342, Burbank DH, Pregitzer KS, Gross KL, 1992. BioControl, 56(4):663-679. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853, Sakai T, Uehara Y, Matsuka M, 1974. Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); pupae of H. axyridis are exposed and the exuvium of the fourth instar remains attached posteriorly to the pupa at the point of substrate attachment. Secondly, sustainable control methods need to be developed both for controlling H. axyridis in buildings and vineyards and for lowering the general level of populations to limit the impact on native biodiversity. 97-126. Harmonia axyridis, el escarabajo asiático multicolor, también conocido como “escarabajo de Halloween”, “escarabajo japonés” o “mariquita arlequín”, es una especie de coleóptero oriundo de Asia , perteneciente a la familia Coccinellidae. ; 33 pp, Dobzhansky T, 1933. Scientia Silvae Sinicae. most pyrethroids, have a pre-harvest interval of several weeks whereas, to be efficient, treatments should be applied within a week before harvest (Galvan et al., 2006). (Ocorrência de Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) no Estado de São Paulo.). CABI, Undated. New occurrences of the alien invasive species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) in Southern Italy (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). (Galvan et al., 2007). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 71(2):159-163, Day WH, Prokrym DR, Ellis DR, Chianese RJ, 1994. The second instars have a similar appearance to the first instars although the first and sometimes first and second abdominal segments have an orange colouration in the dorsal-lateral regions. (Harmonia axyridis segnalata in Campania.) Heredity, 81(6):683-691; 26 ref, Markó V, Pozsgai G, 2009. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year), Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. Temperature-dependent development in an Oregon population of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The evidence from North America supports the contention that H. axyridis is an aggressive coccinellid with a tendency for intraguild predation that could seriously affect the abundance of native coccinellids and dramatically reduce their available niches in the predator complex (Elliott et al., 1996). The presence of H. axyridis larvae within an aphid colony may reduce the rate that parasitoids oviposit (Takizawa et al., 2000) and so reduce their numbers. Wallingford, UK: CABI. A 9-year study in agricultural landscapes in Michigan showed that populations of Brachiacantha ursina, Cycloneda munda and Chilocorus stigma had all declined following the establishment of H. axyridis (Colunga-Garcia and Gage, 1998). The situation in the invaded regions has been indicated in the Habitat list. However, a wide range of literature sources (Hironori and Katsuhiro, 1997; Cottrell and Yeargan, 1998; Phoofolo and Obrycki, 1998; Dixon, 2000; Lynch et al., 2001; Koch et al., 2003; Pell et al., 2008; Ware and Majerus, 2008; Ware et al., 2008) document that H. axyridis consume non-pest insects including: immature stages of many species of coccinellids (Adalia bipunctata, Adalia decempunctata, Calvia quatuordecimguttata, Coleomigilla maculata, Coccinella quinquepunctata, Coccinella septempunctata, Coccinella septempunctata brucki, Cyclomeda sanguinea, Eocaria muiri, Harmonia quadripunctata, Hippodamia variegata, Propylea japonica and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata); one nymphalid (Danaus plexippus) and one Chrysopidae (Chrysoperla carnea). Journal of Insect Science, 3:32, Koch RL, Galvan TL, 2008. Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird); larva feeding on an aphid. Biological Control, 18(3):287-297, Michaud JP, 2001. (A harlekinkatica (Harmonia axyridis Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) elterjedése Magyarországon és megjelenése Romániában, Ukrajnában.).